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          1. Analog Dialogue Technical Journal
          2. RAQs

          Rarely Asked Questions

          RAQ Issue: 169
          Issue 169, September 2019

          A Simple Way to Measure Temperature Using One GPIO Digital Interface

          Question: How can I make an analog measurement if I only have a single GPIO left on the FPGA/microprocesser for my system?

          VIEW THE ANSWER
          RAQ Issue: 168
          Issue 168, August 2019

          Bootstrapping a Low Voltage Op Amp to Operate with High Voltage Signals and Supplies

          Question: Can I bootstrap a low voltage amplifier to get a high voltage buffer?

          VIEW THE ANSWER
          RAQ Issue: 167
          Issue 167, July 2019

          When Smaller Is Better

          Question: How does a μModule® regulator fit into such a small space?

          VIEW THE ANSWER
          • RAQ Issue: 166

            How to Convert Light Intensity Into an Electrical Quantity

            Issue 166, June 2019
          • RAQ Issue: 165

            Discrete Difference Amplifier vs. an Integrated Solution

            Issue 165, May 2019
          • RAQ Issue: 164

            Guidelines for Placing the Inductor on a Switch Mode Power Supply Printed Circuit Board

            Issue 164, April 2019
          • RAQ Issue: 163

            SAR Converter with PGA Achieves Dynamic Range of 125 dB

            Issue 163, March 2019
          • RAQ Issue: 162

            Enablement of Batteryless Applications with Wireless Power

            Issue 162, February 2019
          • RAQ Issue: 161

            A New Spin on a Classic Architecture: Achieving a Fully Differential Output Using Single-Ended Instrumentation Amplifiers

            Issue 161, January 2019
          • RAQ Issue: 160

            Simple Circuit Measures Relative Intensity of Two Light Sources

            Issue 160, December 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 159

            When Grounds Are Separated

            Issue 159, November 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 158

            Driving a Unipolar Gate Driver in a Bipolar Way

            Issue 158, October 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 157

            Overvoltage Protection for RTD-Based Measurement Systems

            Issue 157, September 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 156

            Optimized Power Supply Measurement Setup

            Issue 156, August 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 155

            Home on the Range: Getting Multiple Gain Ranges With Instrumentation Amplifiers

            Issue 155, July 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 154

            Pocket-Size White Noise Generator for Quickly Testing Circuit Signal Response

            Issue 154, June 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 153

            High Speed ADC Power Supply Domains

            Issue 153, May 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 152

            Problem Solver: Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converter

            Issue 152, April 2018
          • RAQ Issue: 151

            High-Side Current Sensing

            Issue 151, March 2018
          • RAQ: Issue 150

            Dynamic Use of the Disable Pin on an Amplifier

            Issue 150, February 2018
          • RAQ: Issue 149

            Intermediate Voltage to Increase Power Conversion Efficiency

            Issue 149, January 2018
          • RAQ: Issue 148

            Unique Gate Drive Applications Enable Rapidly Switching On/Off for Your High Power Amplifier

            Issue 148, December 2017
          • RAQ: Issue 147

            Synchronous Rectification on the Secondary Side

            Issue 147, November 2017
          • raq-issue-146

            Why Is My Processor Leaking Power? That Sounds Like an Open-Ended Question

            Issue 146, October 2017
          • RAQ:  Issue 145

            A Low Power, Low Cost, Differential Input to a Single-Ended Output Amplifier

            Issue 145, September 2017
          • RAQ:  Issue 144

            Accelerometer Tilt Measure Over Temperature and in the Presence of Vibration

            Issue 144, August 2017
          • RAQ: Issue 143

            Burned by Low Power? When Lower Current Consumption Can Get You Into Trouble

            Issue 143, July 2017
          • RAQ: Issue 142

            Orthogonal Perspectives

            Issue 142, June 2017
          • RAQ: Issue 141

            Sometimes, a Signal Needs to Ride the Rails

            Issue 141, May 2017
          • RAQ: Issue 139

            Presto! Multiply Your ADC’s Virtual Channel Count with DDC Magic

            Issue 140, April 2017
          • RAQ:Issue 139

            The Case of the Misguided Gyro

            Issue 139, March 2017
          • RAQ: Issue 138

            This Noise Will Keep You Up at Night

            Issue 138, February 2017
          • RAQ: 137

            Psychotic ADC?

            Issue 137, January 2017
          • RAQ: Issue 136

            Precision Current Outputs Are Easy to Make

            Issue 136, December 2016
          • RAQ: Issue 135

            Amplifier RF: Think Before you Choose!

            Issue 135, November 2016
          • RAQ: Issue 134

            Because Mr. Ohm Said So …

            Issue 134, October 2016
          • RAQ: Issue 133

            Common Sense for Current Sensing

            Issue 133, September 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 132

            Choosing a Precision Op Amp? Trust Goldilocks.

            Issue 132, August 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 131

            Going Full Tilt

            Issue 131, July 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 130

            Who Killed the Component?

            Issue 130, June 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 129

            Who Ate My dBs?

            Issue 129, May 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 128

            Citius, Altius, Fortius

            Issue 128, April 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 127

            Kalman or FIR Filter for My IMU?

            Issue 127, March 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 126

            When Second Sources Aren't

            Issue 126, February 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 125

            O CMRR, CMRR! Wherefore Art Thou CMRR?

            Issue 125, January 2016
          • RAQ:  Issue 124

            Missing Half the Signal

            Issue 124, December 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 123

            Unused Pins

            Issue 123, November 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 122

            The Truth About Voltage Feedback Resistors

            Issue 122, October 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 121

            Unfiltered Analog

            Issue 121, September 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 120

            Voltage References Can Bite You, Too

            Issue 120, August 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 119

            The Ingenious Gentleman and the Mysterious Paddle

            Issue 119, July 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 118

            Mystery Spur Explained: Don't Blame the DDC!

            Issue 118, June 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 117

            Murphy Rules!

            Issue 117, May 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 116

            Muntzing can save cost, components, and even your sanity

            Issue 116, April 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 115

            Isn’t that gain specification a bit lopsided?

            Issue 115, March 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 114

            Choosing Voltage References

            Issue 114, February 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 113

            Don’t Get Caught Speeding

            Issue 113, January 2015
          • RAQ:  Issue 112

            Exposed Paddles and Downbonds Improve Performance and Reduce Pin Count

            Issue 112, December 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 111

            Choosing Analog ICs

            Issue 111, November 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 110

            I Grew Up in the 80s and Survived!

            Issue 110, October 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 109

            ADCs for High Dynamic Range – Successive-Approximation or Sigma-Delta?

            Issue 109, September 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 108

            LEDs are Photodiodes Too

            Issue 108, August 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 107

            The Diamond Plot

            Issue 107, July 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 106

            Overranged Converter Recovers Quickly

            Issue 106, June 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 105

            Discretion is the better part…

            Issue 105, May 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 104

            Looking for Trouble in All the Wrong Places

            Issue 104, April 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 103

            Programmable ADC Input Range Provides System Benefits

            Issue 103, March 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 102

            Defying Scrooge

            Issue 102, February 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 101

            Bits Per Second Make My Head Hertz

            Issue 101, January 2014
          • RAQ:  Issue 100

            RAQs: 100 Issues and Counting

            Issue 100, December 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 99

            Overrange Flag Indicates Data Validity

            Issue 99, November 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 98

            Design Tools and Support Communities Make Analog Fun, not Fearful

            Issue 98, October 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 97

            EngineerZone Makes Getting Answers a Breeze

            Issue 97, September 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 96

            Soft Clipping vs. Hard Clipping

            Issue 96, August 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 95

            Do-it-Yourself ASICs

            Issue 95, July 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 94

            Crystal Radio Sets and Op Amps—Both Can Detect RF Signals

            Issue 94, June 2013
          • RAQ: Issue 93

            Input Magic—Differential Signals Allow Input Swing to Exceed Supply Voltage

            Issue 93, May 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 92

            Multipliers and Modulators

            Issue 92, April 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 91

            Noise Gain vs. Signal Gain

            Issue 91, March 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 90

            Resolution vs. ENOB – Still Hazy After All These Years

            Issue 90, February 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 89

            Electronics is Fun

            Issue 89, January 2013
          • RAQ:  Issue 88

            The Decline of Rounding—or How Significant is Significance?

            Issue 88, December 2012
          • raq-issue-87

            Apples and Oranges—Correlating Specifications Requires Common Test Conditions

            Issue 87, November 2012
          • raq-issue-86

            Current Transformers—and Vacuum Cleaners

            Issue 86, October 2012
          • raq-issue-85

            Great Expectations Come From Basic Understandings

            Issue 85, September 2012
          • raq-issue-84

            Driving Miss ADC

            Issue 84, August 2012
          • raq-issue-83

            Dual Op Amps and Double Agents

            Issue 83, July 2012
          • raq-issue-82

            Transformers: They’re Not All Boat Anchors

            Issue 82, June 2012
          • raq-issue-81

            Switching Bits

            Issue 81, May 2012
          • raq-issue-80

            The Electromotive Force and Op Amps

            Issue 80, April 2012
          • RAQ:  Issue 79

            Nobody is Perfect – Not Even an Engineer!

            Issue 79, March 2012
          • RAQ:  Issue 78

            Considerations on High-Speed Converter PCB Design, Part 4: Plane Coupling

            Issue 78, February 2012
          • RAQ:  Issue 77

            Beware of big claims and large numbers.

            Issue 77, January 2012
          • RAQ:  Issue 76

            In and Out – or – Why Have a Capacitor?

            Issue 76, December 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 75

            Crosstalkin’ Converters

            Issue 75, November 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 74

            Rotary Potentiometers: There Must Be a Better Option

            Issue 74, October 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 73

            The Benefits of Ancient Logic

            Issue 73, September 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 72

            Balancing Phase in High-Speed Converters

            Issue 72, August 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 71

            Looking for savings in all the wrong places

            Issue 71, July 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 70

            Do Something with that Unused Pin!

            Issue 70, June 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 69

            Considerations on High-Speed Converter PCB Design, Part 3: The E-Pad Low Down

            Issue 69, May 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 68

            A Foolish Question about Op Amps and Capacitors

            Issue 68, April 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 67

            Measuring the DC Parameters of Op Amps

            Issue 67, March 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 66

            Considerations on High-Speed Converter PCB Design, Part 2: Power and Ground Planes.

            Issue 66, February 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 65

            Op Amp Dedicated Feedback Pin Helps Achieve New Levels of Performance.

            Issue 65, January 2011
          • RAQ:  Issue 64

            Oversampling and Undersampling

            Issue 64, December 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 63

            Considerations on High-Speed Converter PCB Design, Part 1: Power and Ground Planes.

            Issue 63, November 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 62

            Is amplifier headroom cramping your style?

            Issue 62, October 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 61

            Make do!

            Issue 61, September 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 60

            Watch for Those Multiple Clocking Edges!

            Issue 60, August 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 59

            Is Your Amplifier Disabled, or is it Merely Sleeping?

            Issue 59, July 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 58

            How to Avoid Burning Cakes

            Issue 58, June 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 57

            Keeping Your A/D Converter Clocks Jitter Free

            Issue 57, May 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 56

            Amplifier, attenuator or both?

            Issue 56, April 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 55

            Taming A/D Converter Power Supplies

            Issue 55, March 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 54

            Don’t be Mean - be Root Mean Square!

            Issue 54, February 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 53

            VFB or CFB that is the question!

            Issue 53, January 2010
          • RAQ:  Issue 52

            Bring on the Converter Noise! – Part 2

            Issue 52, December 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 51

            Bring on the Converter Noise! – Part 1

            Issue 51, November 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 50

            What’s the big deal about ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS?

            Issue 50, October 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 49

            What’s the (Converter) Frequency Kenneth?

            Issue 49, September 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 48

            Some Chips Have Moving Parts!

            Issue 48, August 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 47

            Which carries more weight, a datasheet or SPICE macromodel?

            Issue 47, July 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 46

            What shall we do with an unused op-amp?

            Issue 46, June 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 45

            Glass Diodes May See the Light — and Hum

            Issue 45, May 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 44

            Keeping Common Modes Common

            Issue 44, April 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 43

            Impedance Measuring Chip Offers Little Resistance to Applications

            Issue 43, March 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 42

            Are Your Filters Filtering?

            Issue 42, February 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 41

            What’s in Your Toolbox?

            Issue 41, January 2009
          • RAQ:  Issue 40

            How Big Is It?

            Issue 40, December 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 39

            What The Heck Are Off-Amps?

            Issue 39, November 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 38

            Single Supply Amplifiers—They Sound Simple…are they?

            Issue 38, October 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 37

            Lock Down That Noise — Don’t Let It Escape

            Issue 37, September 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 36

            The Difference Between Different Differential Amplifiers

            Issue 36, August 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 35

            Stress Is Bad For You — and For Analog ICs

            Issue 35, July 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 34

            A Capaciticectomy? Sounds Awfully Painful!

            Issue 34, June 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 33

            Hysteresis Blocks Magic

            Issue 33, May 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 32

            Political Correctness and Datasheets

            Issue 32, April 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 31

            Too Hot or Too Cold May Be Just Right*

            Issue 31, March 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 30

            Capacitive Sensors: Rugged Enough for the Real World?

            Issue 30, February 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 29

            Half Full or Half Empty? Thoughts on Capacity.

            Issue 29, January 2008
          • RAQ:  Issue 28

            What's Your Amplifier's Febricity Due to Electricity?

            Issue 28, December 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 27

            Resistors Have Hidden Depths

            Issue 27, November 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 26

            Op-Amp Noise can be Deafening Too

            Issue 26, October 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 25

            Resistor Noise can be Deafening, and Hard to Reduce

            Issue 25, September 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 24

            Are leaky amps sinking your design?

            Issue 24, August 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 23

            Should you butcher your circuit or your test gear?

            Issue 23, June 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 22

            Things (animals and ADCs) are not always what they seem

            Issue 22, May 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 21

            Breadboarding With Surface Mount ICs

            Issue 21, April 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 20

            Igor, pass me some supply sequencers!

            Issue 20, March 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 19

            Observing Maximum Ratings or How to Avoid Forecasts of Doom

            Issue 19, February 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 18

            Just How Accurate was William Tell, Anyway?

            Issue 18, January 2007
          • RAQ:  Issue 17

            More Chips are Better than One (or the Benefits of Belgian Food)

            Issue 17, December 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 16

            Replacing Optocouplers with Digital Isolators

            Issue 16, November 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 15

            How to Age Gracefully and Avoid Sudden Death

            Issue 15, October 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 14

            Why Good Engineers Use the Best Components

            Issue 14, September 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 13

            Sigma Delta Converters are Not Really Hard to Understand

            Issue 13, July 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 12

            How Not to Design Active Filters

            Issue 12, June 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 11

            Comparators & Op Amps—May They Never Meet

            Issue 11, May 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 10

            Digital Processing Does Not Always Rule

            Issue 10, April 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 9

            Grounding Converters

            Issue 9, March 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 8

            Happy Groundhog Day!

            Issue 8, February 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 7

            It’s easy to drive an EE to drink—but what drives one to poetry?

            Issue 7, January 2006
          • RAQ:  Issue 6

            Tick-Tock, Tick-Tock

            Issue 6, December 2005
          • RAQ:  Issue 5

            Check the Bias Current

            Issue 5, November 2005
          • RAQ:  Issue 4

            Caveat Emptor!

            Issue 4, October 2005
          • RAQ:  Issue 3

            Isolating the Key Detail

            Issue 3, September 2005
          • RAQ:  Issue 2

            Slow “starting” ADCs

            Issue 2, July 2005
          • RAQ:  Issue 1

            Radio Frequency Interference (or how to get a free lunch at a very good restaurant)

            Issue 1, June 2005
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